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XQuery Tutorial

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References

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XQuery Example


Let's learn some basic XQuery by looking at an example.


The XML Example Document

We will use the following XML document in the examples below.

"books.xml":

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<bookstore>

<book category="COOKING">
  <title lang="en">Everyday Italian</title>
  <author>Giada De Laurentiis</author>
  <year>2005</year>
  <price>30.00</price>
</book>

<book category="CHILDREN">
  <title lang="en">Harry Potter</title>
  <author>J K. Rowling</author>
  <year>2005</year>
  <price>29.99</price>
</book>

<book category="WEB">
  <title lang="en">XQuery Kick Start</title>
  <author>James McGovern</author>
  <author>Per Bothner</author>
  <author>Kurt Cagle</author>
  <author>James Linn</author>
  <author>Vaidyanathan Nagarajan</author>
  <year>2003</year>
  <price>49.99</price>
</book>

<book category="WEB">
  <title lang="en">Learning XML</title>
  <author>Erik T. Ray</author>
  <year>2003</year>
  <price>39.95</price>
</book>

</bookstore>

View the "books.xml" file in your browser.


How to Select Nodes From "books.xml"?

Functions

XQuery uses functions to extract data from XML documents.

The doc() function is used to open the "books.xml" file:

doc("books.xml")

Path Expressions

XQuery uses path expressions to navigate through elements in an XML document.

The following path expression is used to select all the title elements in the "books.xml" file:

doc("books.xml")/bookstore/book/title

(/bookstore selects the bookstore element, /book selects all the book elements under the bookstore element, and /title selects all the title elements under each book element)

The XQuery above will extract the following:

<title lang="en">Everyday Italian</title>
<title lang="en">Harry Potter</title>
<title lang="en">XQuery Kick Start</title>
<title lang="en">Learning XML</title>

Predicates

XQuery uses predicates to limit the extracted data from XML documents.

The following predicate is used to select all the book elements under the bookstore element that have a price element with a value that is less than 30:

doc("books.xml")/bookstore/book[price<30]

The XQuery above will extract the following:

<book category="CHILDREN">
  <title lang="en">Harry Potter</title>
  <author>J K. Rowling</author>
  <year>2005</year>
  <price>29.99</price>
</book>